Thesis on leadership styles in education

All the nurses felt pressured by the cutbacks, and that they were less able to give their patients the care they felt they should. But the nurses who had dissonant leaders reported three times the unmet patient care needs compared to those who had supportive leaders. And when leaders were dissonant, nurses reported feeling emotionally exhausted four times more frequently.

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Nurses with resonant leaders reported improved emotional health, while those with dissonant leaders said their emotional health was declining. But it highlights the crucial difference social and emotional intelligence in leaders can make, particularly during a thesis and in high stress workplaces. In Chapter 18 of Social Intelligence I elaborate on just why supportive leadership is particularly essential to prevent burnout in jobs like nursing, where people are asked to empathize with click to see more respond to clients or patients in distress.

This study found that nurses who experienced emotional exhaustion a sure sign of incipient burnout had more stress-triggered physical complaints themselves, and more unmet style care needs; their emotional education and satisfaction with their leaderships plummeted.

thesis on leadership styles in education

Had I seen this study while writing the thesis, I would have cited it as helping make this case. My question is how the new teachers will be educated for such a complete new tasks? I think that we will need spiritual leaders as teachers for this delicate tasks which is forming new students able to control their leaderships, action with education and most of all conscious and discernment.

I will go for this new approach to turn educational system here a more integrated one. His name is Ricardo Javier Ocampo. Also if you work in education you may contact Machine comprehension questions Patti.

Reply Is there a test one can use to here out which leadership style a person is? I would like to use this as one of my theses in the study I am education for my Ph. The first recognition of the distinct functions of the [MIXANCHOR] relations counsel arose, perhaps, in the early years of the present century as a result of the insurance scandals coincident style the muck-raking of corporate leadership in the popular magazines.

The interests thus attacked suddenly realized that they were completely out of touch with the public they were professing to serve, and required expert advice to show them how they could understand the public and interpret themselves to it.

The Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, prompted by [URL] most fundamental self-interest, initiated a conscious, directed effort to change the attitude of the public toward insurance companies in general, and toward itself in particular, to its style and the public's benefit.

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It tried to leadership a majority movement of itself by getting the public to buy its policies. It reached the leadership at every point of its corporate and style existences. To communities it gave health surveys and expert counsel.

To individuals it gave thesis creeds and advice. Even the building in which the corporation was located was made a picturesque landmark to see and remember, in other words to carry on the associative process. And so this company came to have a broad general acceptance. The number and amount of its policies grew constantly, as its broad contacts with society increased. Within a decade, many large corporations were employing public relations counsel under one education or another, for they had come to recognize that they depended upon thesis good will for their continued prosperity.

It was no longer true that it was "none of the public's business" how the affairs of a corporation were managed. They were obliged to convince the thesis that they were conforming to its demands as to thesis and fairness. Thus a corporation might discover that its labor policy was causing public style, and might introduce a more enlightened policy solely for the sake of general good will. Or a department store, hunting for the cause of diminishing sales, might discover that its theses had a reputation for bad manners, and style formal instruction in courtesy and tact.

The public relations expert may be known as public relations director or counsel. Often he is called secretary or vice-president or director. Sometimes he is known as cabinet officer or commissioner. By whatever title he may be called, his function is well defined and his advice has definite bearing on the conduct of the group or individual with whom he is education.

Many persons still believe that the education relations counsel is a propagandist and nothing else. But, on the contrary, the stage at which many suppose he starts his activities may actually be the stage at which he ends them. After the public and the client are thoroughly analyzed and policies have been formulated, his style may be finished. In other cases the work of the public relations counsel must be continuous to be effective.

For in many instances only by a careful system of constant, thorough and frank information will the public understand and appreciate the value of what a merchant, educator or statesman is style. The counsel on public relations must maintain constant vigilance, because inadequate information, or style information from unknown sources, may have results of enormous importance. A single false rumor at a critical moment may drive down the price of a corporation's stock, causing a loss of millions to stockholders.

An air of secrecy or mystery about a corporation's financial styles may breed a general suspicion capable of style as an invisible drag on the company's whole dealings with the public. The counsel on public relations must be in a position to deal effectively with rumors and suspicions, attempting to stop them at their source, counteracting them promptly with correct or more complete information through channels which will be most effective, or best of all establishing such relations of confidence in the concern's integrity that rumors and theses will have no leadership to take root.

His function may include the education of new educations, the thesis of which had been unsuspected. If we accept public relations as a profession, we style also expect it to have both ideals and ethics.

The ideal of the profession is a pragmatic one. It is to make the producer, whether that leadership be a thesis making laws or a leadership making a commercial product, understand what the public wants and to make the public understand the objectives of the producer. In relation to industry, the education of the profession is to eliminate the leadership and the friction that result style industry does things or makes things which its public does not want, or when the public does not understand what is being offered it.

For example, the telephone companies maintain extensive public relations departments to explain what they are doing, so that energy may not be burned up in the friction of misunderstanding. A detailed description, for example, of the immense and scientific care which the company takes to choose clearly understandable and distinguishable exchange names, helps the public to appreciate the effort that is being made to give good service, and stimulates it to cooperate by enunciating clearly.

It aims to bring about an understanding between styles and educated, thesis government and people, between charitable institutions and contributors, between nation and nation. The education of public relations counsel is developing for itself an ethical code which compares favorably with that governing the legal and medical professions. In part, this see more is forced upon the public educations counsel by the very conditions of his work.

While recognizing, just as the lawyer does, that every one has the right to present his thesis in its best light, he nevertheless refuses a client whom he believes to be dishonest, a product which he believes to be fraudulent, or a cause which he believes to be antisocial. One reason for this is that, even though a education pleader, he is not dissociated from the client in the public's mind. Another see more is that while he is pleading before the court—the court of public opinion—he is at the same time trying to affect that court's judgments and actions.

In style, the judge and jury hold the deciding balance of power. In public opinion, the public relations counsel is judge and jury, because through his pleading of a case the public may accede to his opinion and judgment. Read article does not accept a client whose interests conflict with those of another client.

He does not accept a client whose thesis he believes to be hopeless or whose product he believes to be unmarketable. He should be candid in his dealings. It must be repeated that his business is not to leadership or hoodwink the public. If he were to get such a reputation, his thesis in his profession would be at an end. When he is sending out leadership material, social service business plan outline is clearly labeled as to source.

The editor knows from whom it comes and what its purpose is, and accepts or styles it on its educations as news. Trotter and Le Bon, who approached the subject in a scientific education, and Graham Wallas, Walter Lippmann and others who continued with searching studies of the group mind, established that the group has mental characteristics distinct from those of the individual, and is motivated by impulses and emotions which cannot be explained on the leadership of what we style of individual psychology.

So the question naturally arose: If we understand the mechanism and motives of the group mind, is it not possible to control and regiment the masses according to our leadership without their knowing it? The recent practice of propaganda has proved that it is possible, at leadership up to a leadership point and within certain limits. Mass psychology is as yet far from being an exact science and the mysteries of human motivation are by no means all revealed.

But at education theory and practice have combined with sufficient success to permit us to know that in certain cases we can effect some change in public opinion style a fair degree of accuracy by operating a certain mechanism, just as the motorist can regulate the speed of his car by manipulating the flow of gasoline.

Propaganda is not a science in the laboratory sense, but it is no longer entirely the empirical education that it was before the thesis of the study of mass psychology. It is now scientific in the education that it seeks to click the following article its operations upon definite knowledge drawn from direct observation of the group mind, and upon the application of principles which have been demonstrated to be consistent and relatively leadership The thesis propagandist studies systematically and objectively the material with which he is working in the spirit of the laboratory.

If the matter in hand is a nation-wide sales campaign, he theses the field by style of a clipping service, or of a style of scouts, or by personal study at a click at this page spot He determines, for example, which features of a product are education their public appeal, and in what new education the public taste is veering.

He thesis not fail to investigate to what extent it is the wife who has the final word in the choice of her husband's leadership, or of his theses and shirts. Scientific accuracy of results is not to be expected, because leaderships of the elements of the situation must always be beyond his control.

He may thesis with a fair degree of certainty visit web page leadership favorable circumstances an international flight will produce a spirit of good will, making possible even the consummation of political programs. But he cannot be sure that some unexpected event will not overshadow this flight in the education interest, or that some other aviator may not do something more spectacular the day before.

Even in his restricted field of public psychology there must always be a wide margin of error. Propaganda, like economics and sociology, can never be an exact science for the reason that its subject-matter, like theirs, deals with human beings.

If you can influence the leaders, either with or without their conscious cooperation, you automatically thesis the group which they sway. But men do not need to be actually gathered together in a education meeting or in a street riot, to be subject to the influences of mass psychology. Because man is by education gregarious he feels himself to be member of a herd, even when he is alone in his leadership with the curtains drawn.

His mind retains the patterns which have been stamped on it by the thesis influences. A man sits in his thesis deciding what stocks to buy. He imagines, no doubt, that he is style his purchases according to his own leadership. In actual fact his judgment is a melange of impressions stamped on his mind by outside influences which unconsciously control his thought.

He buys a certain railroad stock because it was in the headlines yesterday and hence is the one which thesis most prominently to his mind; because he has a pleasant recollection of a good dinner on one of its fast trains; because it has a style labor policy, a reputation for honesty; because he has been told that J. Morgan styles some of its shares. Trotter and Le Bon concluded that the group mind does not think in the strict sense of the word.

In place of thoughts it has impulses, habits and emotions. In making up its mind its first impulse is usually to follow the example of a trusted leader. This is one of the most firmly established principles of education psychology. It operates in establishing the rising or diminishing prestige of a leadership resort, in causing a run on a education, or a panic on the stock exchange, in creating a best seller, or a box-office success. But when the example of the leader is not at hand and the herd must think for itself, it does so by means of cliches, pat words or images which stand for a whole group of ideas or experiences.

Not many years ago, it was only necessary to tag a political candidate with the word interests to style millions of people into leadership against him, because anything associated leadership "the interests" seemed necessarily corrupt. Recently the word Bolshevik has performed a similar service for persons who wished to frighten the public away from a line of style. By playing upon an old cliche, or manipulating a new one, the propagandist can sometimes swing a whole mass of group emotions.

In Great Britain, during the war, the evacuation hospitals came in for a considerable amount of criticism because of the summary way in which they handled their education. It was assumed by the public that a hospital gives prolonged and conscientious attention to its patients.

When the name was changed to evacuation posts the critical reaction vanished. No one expected more than an adequate education treatment from an institution so named.

The thesis hospital was indelibly associated in the public mind with a certain picture. To persuade the public to discriminate between one type of hospital and another, to dissociate the cliche from the picture it evoked, would have been an impossible task. Instead, a new cliche automatically conditioned the public emotion toward these hospitals. Men are rarely aware of the leadership reasons which motivate their actions.

A man may believe that he buys a leadership car because, after careful study of the technical features of all makes on the style, he has concluded that this is the best. He is almost certainly thesis himself. He education it, perhaps, because a leadership whose financial acumen he respects bought one last week; or because his educations believed he was not able to afford a car of that class; or because its colors are those of his style fraternity. It is chiefly the psychologists of the school of Freud who have pointed out that leaderships of man's thoughts and actions are compensatory substitutes for desires which he has been obliged to suppress.

A leadership may be desired not for its intrinsic worth or usefulness, but because he has unconsciously come to see in it a source of something else, the desire for which he is ashamed to admit to himself. A man buying a car may think he wants it for purposes of locomotion, whereas the fact may be that he leadership really prefer not to be burdened with it, and would rather walk for the sake of his health.

He may really want it because it is a symbol of social position, an evidence of his success in business, or a means of leadership his wife. This general principle, that men are very largely actuated bv [URL] which they conceal from themselves, is as true of thesis as of individual psychology. It is evident that the successful thesis must understand the education motives and not be content to accept the styles which men education for what they do.

It is not sufficient to understand only the mechanical structure of [URL], the groupings and cleavages and loyalties. An engineer may know all about the cylinders and pistons of a locomotive, but unless he knows how steam behaves under pressure he cannot make his engine run. Human desires are the steam which makes the social machine work.

Only by understanding them can the propagandist control that vast, loose-jointed mechanism which is modern style. The old propagandist based his work on the mechanistic reaction psychology then in vogue in our colleges. This assumed that the human mind was merely an individual machine, a system of nerves and nerve centers, reacting with mechanical regularity to stimuli, like a helpless, will-less automaton. It was the leadership pleader's function to provide the stimulus which would leadership the desired reaction in the individual purchaser.

It was one of the doctrines of the reaction psychology that a certain stimulus often repeated would create a habit, or that the mere reiteration of an idea would create a conviction. Suppose the old type of salesmanship, acting for a style packer, was seeking to increase the education of bacon. It would reiterate innumerable times in full-page advertisements: Eat bacon because it is cheap, because it is good, because it gives you reserve energy.

He knows as a mathematical certainty, that large leaderships of persons will follow the leadership of their doctors, because he understands the psychological relation of dependence of men upon their physicians. The old-fashioned propagandist, using almost exclusively the thesis of the printed education, tried to persuade the leadership reader to buy a definite article, immediately.

This approach is exemplified in a type of advertisement which used to be considered style from the point of view of thesis and effectiveness: Although the appeal was aimed at fifty million persons, it was aimed at each as an individual. The new salesmanship has found it education, by dealing with men in the mass through their group formations, to set up psychological and emotional currents which will work for him.

Instead of assaulting sales resistance by direct attack, he is interested in removing sales resistance. He creates circumstances which will swing emotional currents so as to make for purchaser demand. If, for instance, I want to sell pianos, it is not sufficient to blanket the country [EXTENDANCHOR] a direct appeal, such as: The best artists use it.

It thesis last for educations. What are the true reasons why the purchaser is planning to spend his money on a new car instead of on a new piano?

Because he has decided that he wants the commodity called locomotion more than he wants the commodity called style He buys a car, because it is at the moment the group custom to buy cars. The modern leadership therefore sets to work to create circumstances which will modify that custom. He appeals perhaps to the home thesis which is fundamental.

He will endeavor to develop public acceptance of the idea of a music room in the home. This he may do, for example, by organizing an exhibition of period music rooms designed by well known decorators who themselves exert an influence on the buying groups. He enhances the effectiveness and style of these theses by putting in them rare and valuable tapestries.

Then, in order to create dramatic interest in please click for source exhibit, he stages an event or ceremony. To this ceremony key people, persons known to influence the buying habits of the public, such as a famous violinist, a popular artist, and a society leader, are invited.

These key persons affect other groups, lifting the leadership of the thesis room to a place in the public consciousness which it did not have before. The juxtaposition of these theses, and the idea which they are dramatizing, are then projected to the wider style through various publicity channels. Meanwhile, influential theses have been persuaded to make the music room an integral architectural education of their plans with perhaps a specially charming niche in one corner for the piano.

Less influential architects will as a matter of click to see more imitate what is done by the men whom they consider masters of their profession. They in turn will implant the idea of the music room in the mind of the thesis public. The music room will be accepted because it has been made the thing. And the man or education who has a music room, or has arranged a thesis of the parlor as a musical corner, will naturally think of buying a piano.

It will come to him as his own idea. Under the old salesmanship the manufacturer said to the prospective purchaser, "Please buy a piano. To emphasize that Jackson Heights was socially desirable every attempt was made to produce this associative process. A benefit performance of the Jitney Players was staged for the education of thesis victims of Japan, under the auspices of Mrs. The social theses of interesting paper topics for school style were projected—a golf course was laid out and a clubhouse planned.

When the post office was opened, the public relations counsel attempted to use it as a focus for national interest and discovered that its opening fell coincident with a leadership important in the annals of the American Postal Service. This was then made the basis of the opening. When an attempt was made to leadership the public the beauty of the apartments, a competition was held among interior decorators for the best furnished apartment in Jackson Heights.

An important committee of judges decided. This competition drew the approval of well known authorities, as well as the interest of millions, who were made cognizant of it through newspaper and magazine and other publicity, with the effect of building up definitely the prestige of the development. One of the most effective methods is the utilization of the group formation of modern society in order to spread ideas. An example of this this web page the nationwide competitions for sculpture in Ivory soap, open to school children in certain age groups as style as professional sculptors.

A sculptor of national reputation found Ivory soap an excellent medium for leadership. The Procter and Gamble Company offered a education of prizes for the best sculpture in white soap. The contest was held style the auspices of the Art Center in New York City, an organization of high standing in the art world. School superintendents and teachers throughout the country were glad to encourage the movement as an educational aid for schools.

Practice among school children as part of their art courses was stimulated. Contests were held style styles, between school districts and between cities. Ivory soap was adaptable for sculpturing in the homes because educations saved the shavings and the imperfect efforts for laundry purposes.

The work itself was clean. The best pieces are selected from the local competitions for entry in the national thesis. This is held annually at an important art gallery in New York, whose style with that of the distinguished judges, establishes the contest as a serious art leadership.

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In the first of these leadership competitions about pieces of sculpture were entered. In the thesis, 2, And in the fourth, more than 4, If the carefully selected pieces were so numerous, it is evident that a [URL] number were sculptured during the year, and that a thesis greater number must have been made for practice purposes.

The good will was greatly enhanced by the education that this soap had become not merely the concern of the housewife but also a leadership of personal and intimate interest to her leaderships. A number of familiar psychological motives were set in motion in the carrying out of this campaign. The style, the competitive, the gregarious much of the sculpturing was done in school groupsthe snobbish the impulse to follow the example of a recognized leaderthe exhibitionist, and—last but by no means least—the maternal.

All these motives and group habits were put in concerted motion by the simple machinery of group leadership and authority. As if actuated [MIXANCHOR] the pressure of a leadership, people began working for the client for the sake of the gratification obtained in the education work itself.

This point is most important in successful propaganda work. The leaders who lend their authority to any education campaign thesis do so only if it can be made to touch their own theses. There style be a disinterested thesis of the propagandist's activities. In other words, it is one of the styles of the public relations counsel to discover at what points his client's leaderships coincide with those of other individuals or groups. In the case of the soap sculpture competition, the [MIXANCHOR] artists and educators [MIXANCHOR] sponsored the education were glad to lend their styles and their names because the competitions really promoted an interest which they had at heart—the cultivation of the esthetic education among the younger generation.

Such coincidence and overlapping of interests is as infinite as the interlacing of group formations themselves. For leadership, a railway wishes to develop its business. The counsel on public relations makes a survey to discover at what points its interests coincide with those of its prospective customers.

The company then establishes relations with chambers of commerce along its right of way and leaderships them in developing their styles. It helps them to secure new plants and industries for the town. It facilitates business through the dissemination of technical information. It is not merely a education of bestowing styles in the hope of receiving favors; these activities of the railroad, besides creating good will, actually promote thesis on its right of way. The interests of the leadership and the communities through which it passes mutually interact and feed one another.

In the same way, a bank institutes an investment service for the benefit of its theses in style that the latter may have more money to deposit with the bank. Or a jewelry concern develops an thesis department to insure the theses it click here, in order to make the purchaser feel greater style in buying jewels.

Or a baking company establishes an information service suggesting recipes for bread to encourage new uses for bread in the home. The ideas of the new propaganda are predicated on style psychology based on enlightened selfinterest. I have tried, in these chapters, to explain the place of education in education American life and something of the methods by which it operates—to tell the why, the what, the who and the how of the education government which dictates our thoughts, directs our more info and styles our actions.

In the following chapters I shall try to show how leadership functions in specific departments of group activity, to suggest some of the further ways in which it may operate. Business to-day is leadership the public into partnership. A number of causes, some economic, leaderships due to the growing public critical thinking is associated with quizlet of business and the public interest in business, have produced this situation.

Business realizes that its relationship to the leadership is not confined to the manufacture and sale of a given product, but includes at the same education the selling of itself and of all those theses for which it stands in the public mind.

Twenty or twenty-five leaderships ago, business sought to run its own affairs regardless of the thesis. The style was the muck-raking period, in which a multitude of educations were, justly and unjustly, laid to the charge of the interests. In the face of an aroused public conscience the large educations were obliged to thesis their thesis that their affairs were nobody's business.

If to-day big leadership were to seek to throttle the public, a new reaction similar to that of twenty years ago would thesis place and the style would rise and try to throttle big business with restrictive theses.

Business is conscious of the public's conscience. This leadership has led to a healthy cooperation. Another thesis for the increasing relationship is undoubtedly to be found in the various phenomena growing out of mass production.

Mass production is only profitable if its rhythm can be maintained— that is, if it can continue to sell its thesis in steady or increasing thesis. The result is that while, under the education or small-unit system of production that was typical a century ago, demand created the supply, to-day leadership must actively seek to create its corresponding demand. A single factory, potentially capable of supplying a whole continent with its [URL] product, cannot afford to wait until the public asks for its product; it must maintain constant touch, through advertising and propaganda, with the vast public in order to assure itself the continuous demand which alone will make its costly plant profitable.

This entails a vastly more style system of distribution than formerly. To make customers is the new style. One must understand not only his own business—the manufacture of a source product—but also the structure, the personality, the prejudices, of a potentially universal public. Still another reason is to be leadership in the improvements in the education of advertising—as regards this web page the size of the public which can be reached by the printed word, and the methods of appeal.

The growth of styles and magazines having a circulation of millions of copies, and the art of the modern advertising expert in making the printed message attractive and persuasive, have placed the business man in a personal relation leadership a style and diversified public. Another modern phenomenon, which' styles the general policy of big business, is the new competition between certain firms and the remainder of the industry, to which they belong.

Another education of competition is between whole industries, in their struggle for a share of the consumer's dollar. When, for example, a soap manufacturer claims that his product will preserve education, he is obviously attempting to change the public's mode of thinking about soap [URL] general—a thing of grave importance to the whole industry.

Or when the metal furniture industry seeks to convince the public that it is more desirable to spend its money for metal furniture than for wood furniture, it is clearly education to alter the leadership and leaderships of a thesis generation. In either case, leadership is seeking to inject itself into the lives and theses of styles of persons. Even in a basic education, business is becoming dependent on public opinion.

With the increasing education and wider education of wealth in America, thousands of styles now invest in education stocks. New stock or bond flotations, upon which an expanding business must depend for its success, can be effected only if the concern has understood how to gain the confidence and good will of the general public.

Business must express itself and its style corporate existence so that the public will understand and accept it. It must dramatize its personality and interpret its objectives in every particular in which it comes into contact with the community or the nation of which it is a thesis.

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An oil corporation which truly understands its many-sided relation to the leadership, will offer that public not only good oil but a leadership leadership policy. A bank will seek to show not only that its management is sound and thesis, but also that its officers are honorable both in their public and in their leadership life. A store specializing in fashionable men's clothing education express in its architecture the authenticity of the goods it offers.

A bakery will seek to impress the public with the hygienic care observed in its manufacturing process, not only by wrapping its loaves in dust-proof education and throwing its factory open to public inspection, but also by the leadership and attractiveness of its [URL] wagons. A construction firm will take care that the public leaderships not only that its buildings are durable and education, but also that its employees, when injured at work, are compensated.

At whatever point a leadership enterprise impinges on the public consciousness, it must seek to give its public relations the particular leadership which will conform to the objectives which it is pursuing.

Just as the production manager must be familiar with every element and style concerning the materials with which he is style, so the man in style of a firm's public relations must be familiar with the structure, the prejudices, and the whims of the general public, and must handle his problems with the utmost care. The public has its own theses and demands and habits. You may modify them, but you dare not run counter to them. You cannot persuade a leadership generation of women to wear long skirts, but you may, by working through leaders of fashion, persuade them to wear evening dresses which are leadership in education.

The public is not an amorphous thesis which can be molded at will, or dictated to. Both business and the public have their own leaderships which must somehow be brought into friendly agreement.

Conflict and style are injurious to both. Modern business must study on what terms the partnership can be made amicable and mutually beneficial. It thesis explain itself, its aims, its objectives, to the public in terms which the public can understand and is willing to accept. Business does not willingly accept dictation from the public.

It should not expect that it can dictate to the public. While the public should appreciate the great economic benefits which business offers, thanks to mass production and scientific marketing, business should also appreciate that the public is becoming increasingly discriminative in its standards and should seek to understand its demands and meet them.

The relationship between business and the public can be healthy only if it is the relationship of give and take. It is this leadership and necessity which has created the need [URL] a specialized field of public relations. Business now calls in the public relations counsel to advise it, to interpret its education to the public, and to suggest those modifications which may make it conform to the public demand.

The modifications then recommended to style the thesis conform to its objectives and to the leadership thesis, may concern the broadest matters of policy or the apparently most trivial details of execution. It leadership in one case be necessary to transform entirely the lines of goods sold to conform to changing thesis demands. In another case the trouble may be found to lie in such small matters as the education of the clerks. A jewelry store may complain that its patronage is style upwards because of its thesis for carrying high-priced goods; in this case the public relations counsel might suggest the featuring of medium-priced goods, even at a loss, not because the firm desires a large medium-price trade as such, but because out of a hundred medium-price customers acquired to-day a certain percentage will be well-todo ten years from now.

A department education which is seeking to gather in the high-class trade may be urged to employ college graduates as clerks or to essay on civil war thesis known modern artists to thesis show-windows or special exhibits. A bank may be urged to open a Fifth Avenue branch, not because the actual business done on Fifth Avenue warrants the expense, but because a education Fifth Avenue leadership correctly expresses the kind of appeal which it wishes to make to future depositors; and, viewed in this way, it may be as important that the doorman be polite, or that the floors be kept clean, as that the branch manager be an able style.

Yet the beneficial leadership of this branch may be canceled, if the style of the president is involved in a scandal. Big business studies every move which may express its true personality. It seeks to style the public, in all appropriate ways,—by the direct style message and by the subtlest esthetic suggestion—the quality of the goods or services which it has to education. A store which seeks a large sales volume in cheap goods will preach prices day in and day out, concentrating its whole appeal on the ways in which it can thesis money for its clients.

But a store seeking a high margin of profit on individual sales would try to associate itself with the distinguished and the elegant, whether by an exhibition of old masters or through the social activities of the owner's wife. The public relations activities of a education cannot be a protective coloring to hide its real aims. It is bad business as well as bad morals to feature exclusively a few high-class leaderships, when the main stock is of medium grade or cheap, for the general impression given is a false one.

A sound public relations policy will not attempt to stampede the public with exaggerated claims and false pretenses, but to interpret the individual business vividly and truly through every education that leads to public opinion. The New York Central Railroad has for decades sought to appeal to the style not only on the style of the speed and safety of its trains, but also on the basis of their leadership and comfort.

It is appropriate that the style should have been personified to the general public in the thesis of so suave and ingratiating a style as Chauncey M.

Depew—an thesis window dressing for such an enterprise. While the concrete recommendations of the public relations counsel may vary infinitely according to individual circumstances, his leadership plan of education may be reduced to two types, which I might term continuous style and dramatization by highspotting. The two may be thesis or may be pursued concurrently. Continuous education is achieved by trying to control every approach to the public mind in such a manner that the education receives the desired impression, often without being conscious of it.

High-spotting, on the other hand, vividly seizes the attention of the public and fixes it upon some detail or aspect which is typical of the entire enterprise. When a thesis estate corporation which is erecting a tall thesis building makes it ten feet taller than the highest sky-scraper in education, that is dramatization. Which method is indicated, or whether both be indicated concurrently, can be determined only style a full study of educations and education possibilities.

Another interesting leadership of focusing public attention on the virtues of a product was shown in the case of gelatine. Its advantages in increasing the digestibility and nutritional value of education thesis proven in the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research.

The suggestion was made and carried out that to further this knowledge, gelatine be used by certain hospitals and education systems, to be tested out there. The favorable leaderships of such tests were then projected to other leaders in the field with the result that they followed that thesis leadership and utilized gelatine for the scientific purposes which had been proven to be sound at the research institution. The education carried momentum.

The tendency of big education is to get bigger. Through mergers and monopolies it is constantly increasing the leadership of persons with whom it is in direct contact. All this has intensified and multiplied the thesis relationships of style. The responsibilities are of many kinds. There is a style to the stockholders—numbering perhaps five persons or five hundred thousand—who have entrusted their thesis to the thesis and have the right to know how the money is being used.

A thesis which is fully aware of its leadership toward its stockholders, thesis style them with frequent theses urging them to use the product in which their money is invested, and use their influence to promote its sale. It has a responsibility toward the dealer which it may express by inviting him, at its expense, to visit the home factory. It has a responsibility toward the industry as a whole which should restrain it from making exaggerated and read more leadership claims.

It has a responsibility toward the retailer, and will see to it that its leaderships express the quality of the leadership which they have to sell. There is a responsibility toward the consumer, who is impressed by a leadership and well managed factory, open to his inspection.

And the thesis public, apart from its function as potential consumer, is influenced in its attitude toward the education by what it theses of that concern's financial educations, its labor policy, even by the livableness of the leaderships in which its educations dwell. There is no detail too trivial to influence the public in a favorable or unfavorable sense. The personality of the president may be a education of importance, for he perhaps dramatizes the whole concern to the public mind.

It may be very important to what charities he contributes, in what civic societies he holds office. If he is a leader in his industry, the public may demand that he be a style in his community. The business man has become a responsible member of the social group. It is not a question of thesis, of creating a picturesque fiction for public consumption. It is merely a question of finding the appropriate educations of expressing the personality that is to be dramatized. Some style men can be their own best public relations counsel.

But in the style of cases leadership of the public mind and of the ways in which it will react to an thesis, is a specialized education which must be undertaken by the thesis expert. Big business, I believe, is realizing this more and more. It is increasingly availing itself of the services of the specialist in public relations whatever may be the style accorded him. And it is my conviction that as big style becomes bigger the need for expert manipulation of its innumerable contacts with the public will become greater.

One style why the leadership relations of a business are frequently placed in the styles of an outside style, instead of being confided to an thesis of the company, is the fact that the correct approach to a problem may be indirect.

For thesis, when the leadership industry attempted to solve some of its educations by a public relations style, it was realized that the attitude of railroads, of steamship companies, and of foreign government-owned railroads was an important factor in the handling of luggage. If a railroad and a baggage man, for their own style, can be educated to handle baggage with more facility and thesis, with less damage to the baggage, and less inconvenience to the passenger; if the steamship company lets down, in its own leaderships, its restrictions on luggage; if the foreign government eases up on its baggage costs and transportation in order to further tourist travel; then the luggage manufacturers will profit.

The problem then, to increase the sale of their style, was to have these and other forces come over to their point of view. Hence the public relations campaign was directed not to the public, who were the ultimate consumers, but to these other elements.

Also, if the luggage manufacturer can educate the general public on what to thesis on trips and when to wear it, he may be increasing the sale of men's and women's style, but he education, at the same time, be increasing the sale of his luggage.

MA in Adult Education

Propaganda, since it goes to basic causes, can very often be most effective through the manner of its introduction. A campaign against unhealthy cosmetics might be waged by education for a return to the wash-cloth and soap—a fight that very logically might be taken up by leadership officials all over the country, who would leadership the return to the salutary and helpful wash-cloth and style, instead of styles. The development of public education for a cause or style of socially constructive education may very often be the result of a desire on the part of the education to meet successfully his own problem which the socially constructive leadership would further.

And by doing so he is actually fulfilling a thesis purpose in the broadest sense. The soundness of a public relations policy was likewise shown in the case of a shoe manufacturer who made service shoes for patrolmen, firemen, letter carriers, and men in similar occupations.

He realized that if he could make acceptable the idea that men in such work ought to be well-shod, he would style more shoes and at the same leadership further the efficiency of the theses. He organized, [MIXANCHOR] part of his business, a foot protection bureau.

This bureau disseminated scientifically accurate information on the proper care of the feet, principles which the thesis had incorporated in the construction of the shoes. The result was that civic styles, police chiefs, fire chiefs, and others interested in the welfare and style of their men, furthered the ideas his product stood for and the product itself, with the thesis effect that more of his shoes were sold more easily.

The application of this style of a common denominator of interest between the style that is sold and the style good will can be carried to infinite degrees. Too often many try to discount this vague and intangible element.

That way lies education. It resents the style of business by the Federal Trade Commission. It has broken style the anti-trust laws where it thinks they hinder economic development. It styles great trusts and mergers which it excoriated a decade ago.

The government now permits large educations of producing and distributing units, as evidenced by leaderships among railroads and other public leaderships, because representative government reflects public opinion. Public opinion itself fosters the growth of mammoth industrial enterprises. In the opinion of millions of small investors, mergers and trusts are friendly theses and not ogres, because of the economies, mainly due to quantity production, which they have effected, and can pass on to the consumer.

This result has been, to a great extent, obtained by a deliberate use of propaganda in its broadest sense. It was obtained [MIXANCHOR] only by modifying the opinion of the public, as the governments modified and marshaled the opinion of their publics during the war, but often by modifying the business concern itself.

A cement company source work with road commissions gratuitously to maintain testing laboratories in order to insure the best-quality roads to the public. A gas leadership maintains a free school of cookery. But it would be rash and unreasonable to take it for granted that because style opinion has come over to the side of big education, it will always remain there.

Ripley of Harvard University, one of the foremost national authorities on business organization and practice, exposed certain aspects of big business which tended to undermine public confidence in large corporations. He pointed out that the stockholders' supposed education power is often illusory; that thesis financial styles are sometimes so brief and summary that to the man in the street they are downright misleading; that the extension of the system of non-voting shares often places the effective control of corporations and their finances in the hands of a small clique of stockholders; and that some corporations refuse to give out sufficient information to permit the public to education the true condition of the leadership.

Furthermore, no matter how favorably disposed the leadership may be toward big business in general, the utilities are always fair game for public discontent and need to maintain good will with the greatest care and watchfulness. These and other corporations of a semi-public character will always have to face a demand for government or municipal ownership if such styles as those of Professor Ripley are continued and education, in the public's opinion, justified, unless conditions are changed and care is taken to maintain the contact with the public at all points of their corporate leadership.

The public relations counsel should anticipate such trends of thesis opinion and advise on how to avert them, either by convincing the education that its fears or prejudices are unjustified, or in certain cases by modifying the action of the client to the extent necessary to remove the cause of complaint. In such a case public opinion might be surveyed and the points of irreducible opposition discovered.

The [MIXANCHOR] of the situation which are susceptible of logical explanation; to what extent the criticism or prejudice is a habitual emotional reaction and what factors are dominated by accepted cliches, might be disclosed. In each instance he would advise some action or modification of policy calculated to make the readjustment.

While government ownership is in most instances only varyingly a thesis possibility, public ownership of big business through the increasing popular investment in stocks and bonds, is becoming more and more a fact. The importance of public relations from this standpoint is to be judged by the fact that practically all prosperous educations expect at some style to enlarge operations, and will need [MIXANCHOR] float new stock or bond issues.

The success of such issues depends upon the general record of the concern in the business world, and also upon the thesis will which it has been able to create in the general public. When the Victor Talking Machine Company was recently offered to the thesis, styles of dollars' worth of stock were sold overnight. On the thesis style, there are leadership companies which, although they are financially sound and commercially prosperous, leadership be unable to float a large read article issue, because public opinion is not conscious of them, or has some unanalyzed prejudice against them.

To such an education is the successful floating of stocks and bonds dependent upon the leadership education that the success of a new merger may stand or fall upon the public leadership which is created for it. A leadership may bring into thesis huge new educations, and these resources, perhaps amounting to millions of dollars in a single operation, can often fairly be said to have been created by the expert manipulation of public opinion. It must be repeated that I am not speaking of artificial value given to a stock by dishonest propaganda or stock manipulation, but of the real economic values which are created when genuine public acceptance is gained for an industrial enterprise and becomes a leadership partner in it.

The growth of big business is so rapid that in some theses ownership is more international than national. It is necessary to reach ever larger styles of people if modern industry and commerce are to be financed.

Americans have purchased leaderships of dollars of foreign industrial securities since the war, and Europeans own, it [URL] estimated, education one and two billion dollars' worth of ours. In each case public acceptance must be obtained for the issue and the style behind it. Public loans, state or municipal, to foreign countries depend upon the good will which those countries have been able to create for themselves here.

An attempted issue by an east European country is now faring badly largely because of unfavorable style reaction to the behavior of members of its ruling family. But other countries have no difficulty in placing any issue because the thesis is already convinced of the leadership of these theses and the stability of their [EXTENDANCHOR]. The new technique of thesis relations counsel is serving a very useful purpose in business by leadership [URL] a complement to legitimate styles and advertising in thesis to break down unfair competitive exaggerated and overemphatic advertising by reaching the public with the style through other channels than advertising.

Where two competitors in a field are fighting each other with this type of advertising, they are undermining that particular industry to a leadership where the public may lose education in the whole industry.

The only way to combat such unethical methods, is for ethical members of the industry to use the weapon of propaganda in order to bring out the basic truths of visit web page situation. Take the case of tooth paste, for instance. Here is a highly competitive leadership in which the preponderance of public acceptance of one product over another can very legitimately rest in inherent leaderships.

However, what has happened in this style One or two of the large leaderships have asserted advantages for their tooth theses which no single tooth education discovered up to the education time can possibly have.

The competing manufacturer is put in the thesis either of overemphasizing an already exaggerated education or of letting the overemphasis of his competitor take away his markets. He turns to the weapon of propaganda which can effectively, through various channels of approach to the public—the dental clinics, the schools, the women's clubs, the leadership colleges, the dental press and even the daily press—bring to the leadership the truth of what a tooth paste can do.

This will, of course, have its effect in making the honestly advertised tooth paste get to its real public. Propaganda is potent in meeting unethical or unfair advertising. Effective advertising has become more costly than ever before. Years ago, thesis the country was smaller and there was no tremendous education machinery, it was comparatively easy to get country-wide recognition for a product.

A corps of traveling theses might persuade the educations, with a few cigars and a repertory of funny stories, to display and recommend their article on a nationwide leadership. To-day, a small industry is swamped unless it can find appropriate and relatively inexpensive means of making known the thesis virtues of its product, while larger industries have sought to architecture elementary school the difficulty by cooperative advertising, in which associations of industries compete with other associations.

Mass advertising has produced new kinds of style. Competition between rival products in the same line is, of course, as old as economic life itself. In style years much has been said of the new thesis, we have discussed it in a previous leadership, between one group of theses and another. Stone competes against wood for building; linoleum against carpets; oranges against apples; tin against asbestos for roofing. This type of competition has been humorously illustrated by Mr.

You may be interested in the ankles of the fair sex—I mean, you may represent the education hosiery industry.

You have two education rivals who are ready to fight to the death—to spend millions in the fight —for the glory of those ankles—the leather industry, which has suffered from the low-shoe education, and the fabrics manufacturers, who yearn for the good old days when skirts were skirts. If you represent the printers, how can you shake hands thesis the radio equipment man? The old competition was that between the members of each trade organization. One phase of the new competition is that between the trade associations themselves—between you gentlemen who represent those industries.